06/25

What are the structural characteristics of end mills?

End milling cutter is a widely used multi blade tool in CNC machining, which can process flat surfaces, step surfaces, grooves, etc. The milling speed of the end mill is high and there is no clearance, so it is a high-efficiency cutting tool. The geometric structure of a milling cutter is very complex, and the overall structure of an end milling cutter can be divided into three parts: the blade, neck, and shank. The blade is the most important part of the entire cutting tool, and its material, shape, and number of teeth determine its machining performance. The cutting edge on the cylindrical surface of the end mill is the main cutting edge, and the secondary cutting edges are distributed on the end face; The handle is the clamping part of the cutting tool, which is used to connect with the machine tool and transmit torque during milling. Its shape determines the size of the blade diameter; The neck is the part that connects the blade and the handle. The blade is the most complex part of an end mill, therefore, the key to 3D modeling of an end mill is to model the blade. The main structure of the blade is a spiral entity, which can be obtained by scanning and cutting the generated cylinder with the vertical section of the spiral groove as the contour and the combination curve of the spiral line and a tangent line as the path, forming a spiral entity. The shank of end mills is generally divided into two categories: straight shank and tapered shank. The positioning and installation of straight shank end mills are relatively convenient. For small diameter end mills, the straight shank type is widely used.

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06/25

Do you know how to use tungsten steel milling cutters correctly

When tungsten steel milling cutters are used in the milling process, the workpiece can be fed along or relative to the tool rotation direction, which will affect the starting and finishing characteristics of the cutting. When tungsten steel milling cutters perform forward milling (also known as co milling), the feed direction of the workpiece is the same as the rotation direction of the tungsten steel milling cutter in the cutting area. The chip thickness gradually decreases from the beginning until the end of the cut is zero during peripheral milling; When performing reverse milling (also known as reverse milling), the feed direction of the workpiece is exactly opposite to the rotation direction of the milling cutter in the cutting area. The chip thickness starts at zero and gradually increases with the cutting process. When tungsten steel milling cutter is performing reverse milling, the tungsten steel milling cutter blade starts cutting from the zero chip thickness point, which generates a high cutting force, thereby pushing the tungsten steel milling cutter and the workpiece away from each other. After the tungsten steel milling cutter blade is forcibly pushed into the incision, it usually comes into contact with the machined hardened surface caused by the cutting blade, while generating friction and polishing effects under the action of friction and high temperature. Cutting force also makes it easier to lift the workpiece off the workbench. When tungsten steel milling cutter is in forward milling, the tungsten steel milling cutter blade starts cutting from the thickness of the chip. This can avoid polishing effects by reducing heat and weakening the hardening trend during processing. The application of chip thickness is very advantageous, and the cutting force is easier to push the workpiece into the tungsten steel milling cutter, allowing the tungsten steel milling cutter blade to perform cutting action. When tungsten steel milling cutters are used for milling, broken chips may sometimes bond or weld to the cutting edge, and gather around the beginning of the next cutting edge. When performing reverse milling, broken chips are more likely to be intercepted or wedged between the blade and the workpiece, which can lead to blade fracture. When performing forward milling, the same chips will be split in half, so as not to damage the cutting edge. Regardless of the requirements of the machine tool, fixture, and workpiece, forward milling is the method. Due to the cutting force being able to push the blade forward while keeping the workpiece down, forward milling has certain special requirements for the machining process. This requires the machine tool to handle the feed requirements of the workbench by eliminating backlash. If the tool is pushed into the workpiece, the feed rate will increase irregularly, resulting in excessive chip thickness and causing edge breakage. Reverse milling should be chosen in such applications. In addition, if there is a significant change in machining allowance, it is more advantageous to choose reverse milling at this time. To clamp the workpiece correctly, a suitable fixture is required, and for operations, the correct tool size is also required. However, for vibration trends, the direction of cutting force is more important.

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